a prisoner's dilemma is a situation describing game theory, a branch of economics that analyzes decisions made under conflict and uncertainty. in a typical prisoner's dilemma scenario, two parties under threat have the option of protecting themselves at the expense of the other party. for example, ? and ? are suspects in a number of robberies. the police are able to retain both men but the evidence placing them ? robbery is weak. thus, they need confessions in order to convict either man. during a private ?, an officer make ? a deal. if he can faces and testifies against ?, then he is free to go. however, when the officer talks to ? alone, he offers him the same deal. if ? testifies against ?, he is free to go. unbeknownst to either man, ? if they both testify against each other, each receives a sentence of ten years. if one testifies and the other does not, the person who does not testify receives twenty years. and if they both remain silent, each gets one year. without cooperation between the two men, the dominant strategy is for ? and ? to ?, as the possible outcome of zero to ten years in prisonment is better than the alternative possibility of one to twenty years. a pricing ? between two identical firms can also be described as a prisoner's dilemma where rather than ? under cutting the competitor's price to gain market share at the cost of profit, companies cooperating on a set price ? similar products can share the margins. without cooperation, each firm finds it in its own best interest to gain the lead over the other firm.
- unbeknownst to・・・～に気付かれずに